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Śikṣā one of the six Vedāṅgas, deals with generation and pronunciation of varṇas (Dhvanishastra) which is called phonetics in modern parlance.

- Dr. Korada Subrahmanyam


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Sat 19 Sep 2020

6:30 PM - 8:00 PM

Event Type: Weekly

Śikṣā – The Indic Shastra of Pronunciation


Śikṣā one of the six Vedāṅgas, deals with generation and pronunciation of varṇas (Dhvanishastra) which is called phonetics in modern parlance. The systematic procedure of pronunciation developed in śikṣā helped preserve the Vedas etc without any variation in the most faithful way possible. Each Veda has a specific prātiśākhya associated with it and deals with a few aspects that are discussed in śikṣā granthas. It aids in the accurate pronunciation of Samskrit letters useful for both Vaidika and Laukika bhashas.


  • To learn the generation of varṇa and role of Uccāraṇasthānas (उच्चारणस्थानानि) and Prayatnas (प्रयत्नाः) in articulation
  • To understand the consequences of Varṇa and Svara – mispronunciation
  • To understand the nature of Śabdas – Vaidika and Laukika

Expected Outcome

  • To understand the place of śikṣā in vedāṅgas
  • To learn the basics of Varṇamālā and Varṇa-krama
  • Aims to make one perfect in pronunciation of svaras for use in Vaidika and Laukika bhashas.
  • To know the Uccāraṇasthānas and Prayatnas
  • To understand Guṇas(Virtues) and Doṣās(vices) of a reader


  • All Students of Samskrit – Vaidika and Laukika studies
  • All those who are interested in learning śikṣā shastra
  • Students of saṅgītam and nāṭyam
  • Arcakas and Purohitas

Detailed Syllabus


  • Introduction to Samskrit Tradition – Vaidika and Laukika – Vedapurusha
  • What is Samskritam? 18 Vidyāsthānas
  • Importance of pronunciation
  • Devabhasha – Mlecchabhasha
  • Varṇa – Pada – Vākya – Mahāvākya – Sphoṭa
  • Meaningfulness of Varṇas


  • Production of Śabdas
  • Alphabet – Ac (अच्) – Hal (हल्) – Ayogavāḥaḥ (अयोगवाहाः) – time limit
  • Sthana (Uccāraṇasthānas) and Prayatnas
  • Svaras and Saṅgītam
  • Guṇas (Virtues) and Doṣas (vices) of Uccāraṇa
  • Vr̥ttis – Dr̥ta – Madhya – Vilambita


  • Connection with Vyākaraṇa
  • Doṣas as per Paninian Grammar – Mahābhāṣyam
  • Prātiśākhyas- Yamavarna
  • Practicals



Prof. Korada Subrahmanyam


Prof. Korada Subrahmanyam served at the Center for Applied Linguistics and Translation Studies (CALTS) since October 1988. He completed Bhashapraveena (Telugu & Sanskrit - 1975) and joined Andhra University Sanskrit Department in 1976, from where he received his Doctorate Degree in Vyakarana in 1982. He won many medals and prizes in his educational  course, while his Doctorate Thesis won the Best Thesis Award. Early on, from the age of five, he studied the texts of 18 Vidyasthanas as per the Gurukulapaddhati and went on to set an example as an excellent blend of Oriental and Occidental types of Education Dr. Korada Subrahmanyam is adorned with the titles  “Mahamahopadhyaya”, “Sastra Bhaskara” and is the recipient of the “Vedavyasa Sammanam”.